Duannah A. Kamara (left), managing director of the LWSC, signed on behalf of the Government of Liberia, while Monie R. Captan, chief executive officer of MCA-L, signed on behalf of his entity.The Millennium Challenge Account-Liberia (MCA-Liberia) has entered an US$18 million grant of Implementing Entity Agreement (IEA) with the Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation (LWSC).The grant is intended to rehabilitate the Raw Water Pipeline project and to replace the damaged 36-inch diameter pipeline from the dam at the Mt. Coffee Hydro Power Plant to White Plains Water Treatment Plant in Louisiana, lower Montserrado County.Mr. Monie R. Captan, chief executive officer of MCA-L, signed on behalf of his entity, while Duannah A. Kamara, managing director of the LWSC, also signed on behalf of the Government.Prior to the signing ceremony, Mr. Captan said since the pipeline was destroyed during the civil war in the 1990s the LWSC has been pumping water from the St. Paul River by means of a river intake and pump station at the water treatment plant (WTP).He said the US$18 million proposed pipeline is approximately 3.1 miles long and generally follows the original alignment of the pipeline with small deviations.Kamara stated that the construction of the new pipeline will result in the consistent and quality water supply to the nearly one million residents of Monrovia.The MCA-L chief executive officer noted that as the reliability and quality of water delivered by the system improves, it is to be expected that a greater percentage of the city and county’s population will obtain their water from the public water system.He said the Raw Water Pipeline is a subproject under the Energy project of the US$257 million grant to Liberia from the American Government through the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC).He explained further that the objective will address several problems facing the energy in the country through four compact activities, including the Mt. Coffee rehabilitation activity, Mt. Coffee support activity, the Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC) training center activity, and the energy sector reform.These four activities, he said, are complementary and aim to connect more homes and businesses to reliable and affordable electricity to drive sustainable economic growth.LWSC Managing Director Kamara expressed gratitude to the United States Government through the MCA-L for such an initiative which is intended to provide safe drinking water for Liberians.He said the signing of the grant agreement will provide abundant water into the water treatment plant, which will help them serve the people in central Monrovia and its environs.He believes that a 48-inch diameter pipeline will be constructed for water to reach the WTP via gravity flow, which will replace the need for river intake, reduce the cost for electricity associated with the use of a pump station, and eliminate salt-water intrusion at the WTP caused by river intake during the dry season that results in poor water quality.Meanwhile, the ceremony was attended by Mr. Archibald Bernard, legal advisor to President George M. Weah, LWSC Board members and other dignitaries.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
TORONTO – After nearly a month full of mystery surrounding his progress and his eventual return, Kevin Durant finally experienced a moment of clarity on his injured right calf. Durant is expected to play when the Warriors face the Toronto Raptors in Game 5 of the NBA Finals on Monday.Granted, Durant’s return elicits more questions. To what extent can Durant mirror his league-leading 34.2 points he averaged during the NBA playoffs before injuring his right calf in Game 5 of the Western …
30 May 2013 South African private equity food and agribusiness fund Agri-Vie has invested R50-million in the Tanzanian Food Corporation (TFC) to develop the country’s beef industry to meet fast-growing consumer demand. “There is a growing demand for quality meat products thanks to a growing middle class, increased investment, increasing awareness of food safety and the growth and development of a number of sectors in the country,” Agri-Vie managing partner, Herman Marais, said in a statement on Wednesday. Agri-Vie was established by financial services group Sanlam Private Equity and investment firm SP-aktif to drive sustainable growth in sub-Saharan Africa’s food sector. Agri-Vie’s Africa investment fund looks to invest in projects with positive development impacts and good financial returns. Tanzania’s meat industry has significant potential nationally and regionally, according to Marais. “Agri-Vie’s injection of risk capital over the next few years, the importation of genetic material from neighbouring African countries, enhanced animal foods and beef sector know-how will see the company increase production and sales many-fold,” he said. “We are proud to join the local and international founding shareholders of TFC who have developed the venture to a stage ready for significant expansion.” The TFC operations area is primarily in the Iringa region of the southern Tanzanian highlands and forms part of the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania, which is a public-private investment initiative to drive agribusiness output. “The operation comprises of abattoir and processing facilities, a sales and distribution channel, an estate rearing beef cattle, in combination with a supply chain for a fattening herd of cattle and sheep and an arable farming operation focusing on maize and soya as a basis for animal feeds,” Marais said. “There is also significant scope for value added products, as some 700 metric tons of processed meat are currently imported into the country annually.” SAinfo reporter
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Scenario 1: plastic on the inside, hot humid weatherI’m writing this article because one of our HERS raters came across a house in Charleston, South Carolina that had polyethylene under the drywall, on the interior side of the wall assembly. Polyethylene, often shortened to poly, is a Class I vapor retarder, which is usually what’s meant by the term vapor barrier. If you’re at all familiar with the climate in Charleston and understand moisture, you know that can’t be a good thing.I was there one day in June a few years ago and saw condensation on the outside of a window… at one o’clock in the afternoon of a sunny day. The dew point of the outdoor air was 78° F. The window had a single pane of glass. They were running the air conditioner, so the indoor temperature was probably 75 or below. Humid air hits cool surface. Condensation results. Now, imagine that pane of glass is actually a sheet of polyethylene. Next, imagine that a layer of drywall separates the poly from the indoor air. Then build a wood-frame wall outside the poly, complete with cladding and air permeable insulation in the cavities. Will that poly be protected from the outdoor humidity? Or will it, like the window I saw, be dripping with condensation?If it’s a typical wall, chances are good that water vapor in the outdoor air will find its way into the wall cavity, eventually finding the sheet of poly, pressed up against the drywall. If that wall allows outdoor air to infiltrate and the poly is below the dew point, condensation is the likely result. If those conditions last long enough, the condensed water will run down the poly, get the wood framing wet, and begin to rot out the wall.The truth, however, is that the water vapor in the outdoor air is rarely the source of moisture that rots out a wall. More likely is that moisture from a wet foundation makes its way up into the wall by capillary action, or bulk water from leaks around openings gets into the wall cavity. The presence of an interior vapor barrier makes drying out the cavity harder to do, though.Without poly beneath the drywall, water vapor hits the drywall and diffuses through to the drier (in summer) indoor air. By installing a sheet of poly there, you cut off that drying mechanism and water that finds its way into walls can stay there longer and do more damage. RELATED ARTICLES Do I Need a Vapor Retarder?Vapor Retarders and Vapor BarriersForget Vapor Diffusion — Stop the Air Leaks!When Sunshine Drives Moisture Into WallsSmart Vapor RetardersQuestions and Answers About Air BarriersQ&A Spotlight: Vapor Barriers Redux Joe Lstiburek Discusses Basement Insulation and Vapor RetardersJoseph Lstiburek: Air Barrier or Vapor Barrier? Scenario 3: plastic on the outside, cold weatherPlastic on the outer surface of a wall in cold weather could cause problems. The humid air is indoors. The cool surface is the sheathing, assuming no exterior insulation. If water vapor diffuses or infiltrates into the wall cavity and finds the cool surface, moisture problems can occur.Of course, you can have moisture problems here even without the exterior vapor barrier because of what Bill Rose calls the rule of material wetting. That is, warm materials dry more quickly than cold materials. If humid air from indoors finds cold sheathing and starts accumulating there, the moisture will stay there longer because it’s difficult to dry at low temperatures, even though the outdoor air is dry in terms of absolute humidity. A lot of people have heard advice about vapor barriers and vapor retarders. Many of them have walked away confused. A big part of the problem, I think, is that they’ve been told what to do — “Put it on the warm-in-winter side,” or “Never use one” — but they haven’t had the physics of what happens explained to them.In this article, I’m not going to get into the details of vapor barriers or all the possible scenarios of different wall assemblies and moisture loads. I’m simply going to explain what happens in a wall cavity with and without a plastic vapor barrier installed. It’s not just a climate issueWe can summarize the vapor barrier issue like this:A Class I vapor retarder’s job is to keep water vapor in humid air from diffusing through one side of a wall and finding a cool surface inside the wall.When a Class I vapor retarder is on the side of a wall where the dry air is (i.e., outside in winter or inside in summer), moisture problems can occur.A Class I vapor retarder reduces the movement of water vapor by diffusion. Holes in the vapor barrier that allow humid air through may allow a lot more water vapor into an assembly than the vapor barrier is stopping. Because of this, air sealing is more important than vapor retarders.If you’re in a place like Miami, where it’ll almost never be colder outdoors than indoors, a Class I vapor retarder on the outer surface of a wall assembly may be OK. If you’re in Maine and never use an air conditioner, a Class I vapor retarder on the inner surface may be OK. If you’re in a cold climate, however, and do use air conditioning, you need to be careful with interior vapor barriers like polyethylene. You could be creating the kind of problems I described in Scenario 1 above. Scenario 4: plastic on the outside, hot humid weatherA vapor barrier can cause problems if it prevents drying to a drier space. In a building with air conditioning during hot humid weather, the drier space is indoors. The humid air is outdoors. Putting a vapor barrier on the inside, as we saw in Scenario 1 above, can lead to problems because any humid air that gets into the wall cavity is blocked from drying to the inside.If the vapor barrier is on the outside, it prevents the humid air from diffusing into the wall cavity and finding the cold surface on the other side of the cavity, the back side of the drywall. So, like a vapor barrier on the inner surface in cold weather, putting one on the outer surface in hot weather isn’t likely to have a moisture problem due to vapor diffusion. It doesn’t mean you won’t have a moisture problem, though, because moisture can get into the walls by means other than diffusion. Scenario 2: plastic on the inside, cold weatherIn cold weather, a sheet of poly on the interior side of a wall probably won’t cause any problems. The humid air is indoors, and the dry air is outdoors. The sheet of poly still cuts off drying to the indoors, but it keeps the water vapor in the humid indoor air away from the cold surfaces inside the wall. This is what building scientists proposed as the solution for walls that wouldn’t hold paint back in the early days of insulation. It didn’t solve the paint problem, though, because water vapor from the indoor air wasn’t the main source of moisture. Enhancing drying vs. preventing wetnessIf designers and builders want buildings to do their jobs properly and not fail prematurely, it’s important to understanding moisture. We know now that mid-twentieth century building science incorrectly ascribed magical properties to vapor barriers. Water vapor from indoor air wasn’t the source of most moisture problems. Bulk water from deficiencies in drainage planes, flashing, and other moisture management details caused most of the problems.Building science has progressed since then. We know that vapor barriers can cause problems, but we still have homes like the one in Charleston with poly in the walls. And we have $4 million dollar homes with poly on the walls, too. I saw the one shown in the photo below when Martin Holladay came to Atlanta last year. The photo was taken in the basement, and the kneewalls in the attic also were covered with poly.Our understanding now is that it’s generally more important for wall assemblies to be able to dry than it is to block water vapor with materials like polyethylene. In most cases, you’re fine with the vapor retarding ability of the materials already in your walls, and you don’t need to use Class I vapor retarders.Here’s what Bill Rose wrote in his book, Water in Buildings: “Given the fact that a very small percentage of building problems (1 to 5% at most in the author’s experience) are associated with wetting by water vapor diffusion, the argument for enhanced drying potential becomes much stronger.”In other words, the potential for creating problems is greater when you use Class I vapor barriers that prevent drying, so be absolutely certain you need one before going that route. Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, energy consultant, RESNET-certified trainer, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. You can follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard.
India will take on England in a five-match ODI series and a T20I from Aug 25India has named three uncapped players in a 17-man squad for the limited overs leg of its ongoing tour of England.Pace bowler Dhawal Kulkarni, wicketkeeper-batsman Sanju Samson and leg-spinner Karn Sharma were picked Tuesday for a series of five one-day internationals and one Twenty20 game to be played from August 25 to September 7.While Samson and Karn were picked for an India side for the first time, Kulkarni was part of the test squad for a tour of New Zealand in 2009 but did not get to play.The team led by Mahendra Singh Dhoni does not include experienced players like Gautam Gambhir, Yuvraj Singh and Virender Sehwag as the selectors went for youth with an eye on next year’s World Cup in Australia and New Zealand.Indian Squad: Mahendra Singh Dhoni(c), Virat Kohli, Shikhar Dhawan, Rohit Sharma, Ajinkya Rahane, Suresh Raina, Ravindra Jadeja, R Ashwin, Stuart Binny, Bhuvneshwar Kumar, Mohd Shami, Mohit Sharma, Ambati Rayudu, Umesh Yadav, Dhawal Kulkarni, Sanju Samson, Karn Sharma