The food and feeding ecology of Black‐browed Albatrosses and Grey‐headed Albatrosses was studied from 1975 to 1978 at Bird Island, South Georgia. Two hundred and seventy food samples (averaging 75–85 % by weight of the mean chick feed) were collected from adults of each species in February and March. Chicks of both species received meals of the same size, of which half consisted of liquid. The three major components of the solid diet (krill, squid and fish) were similar for both albatrosses. By weight, fish represented about 35 % of the diet of both species; squid predominated (50 %) in the diet of Grey‐headed Albatross, and krill (40 %) in the diet of Black‐browed Albatross. Lampreys were confined to the Grey‐headed Albatross and, although squid of similar sizes were taken by both species, Black‐browed Albatrosses took a much greater diversity of squid. Each major prey type was associated with a characteristic amount of liquid in the complete samples and only in the case of krill and lamprey was this lipid‐rich. As these two albatrosses are of similar size, breed over the same period and feed meals of equivalent weight to their chicks at similar intervals, the difference in the composition of the diet is possibly the most significant mechanism of ecological segregation (in the breeding season). Evidence of the effect of krill shortage in drastically reducing Black‐browed Albatross breeding success is presented to support this. The two species have largely non‐overlapping winter oceanic ranges which are probably also correlated with the distribution of preferred prey.
In most species daily and seasonal changes in the light-dark cycle are the most important synchronisers (zeitgebers) of daily and seasonal rhythms. In humans only bright light (2500 lux) appears to be an effective circadian zeitgeber. Seasonal effects of light on human physiology have not been investigated. We have exploited the low intensity illumination of the Antarctic winter to investigate the effects of bright-or dim-light treatment for an hour in the morning and in the evening (a ‘skeleton’ 12.5-h day) for 6 weeks on the plasma melatonin rhythm, together with mood and a number of behavioural variables. In parallel seasonal changes in melatonin were observed. Melatonin is known to convey daylength information in photoperiodic seasonal breeders through characteristics of its night-time secretion profile. Bright-, but not dim-, light treatment in winter induced a marked phase advance of the melatonin rhythm, similar to that found in the summer, without marked effect on the other variables. Thus at least one human seasonal change appears to be light-dependent.
By using planetary radio astronomy (PRA), plasma wave system (PWS), and Magnetometer (MAG) data from Voyager 1 and 2 (V1 and V2), essential features of the nightside Jovian plasma sheet are derived, and the density gradient of the corotating plasma structure in the middle Jovian magnetosphere is calculated. The PRA experiment gives information about the plasma wave polarization. To determine the density profile of the plasma sheet, we have derived the hinge point position of the plasma disc from MAG data and used the low‐frequency cutoffs observed at three frequencies (562 Hz, 1 kHz, and 1.78 kHz) from the PWS experiment. We show that the hinge point position varies with the solar wind ram pressure, and the plasma disc thickness decreases with distance up to about 60 RJ. The average thickness for an isodensity contour corresponding to 1 kHz is 3.29 RJ for V1 and 3.16 RJ for V2.
Using stomach lavage samples from macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus Brandt breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia and concurrent net samples caught within the penguin foraging range, we examined the potential selection of different length and maturity stages of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba Dana. Using Monte Carlo randomised simulation techniques, we also determined the probability of obtaining length-frequency distributions of krill different from that obtained in the net samples. The krill taken by the macaroni penguins differed significantly from those caught in the nets. Small krill (28 to 38 mm) were absent from the stomach samples, whereas large krill (58 to 62 mm) were more abundant. Random sampling using Monte Carlo simulation techniques produced length-frequency distributions that were statistically different from the original distribution of krill caught in nets on 76 out of 100 trials. Nevertheless, these differences were smaller than those found between the penguin samples and net samples. Comparison of krill maturity stages showed that krill taken by macaroni penguins contained 3 times as many female as male krill, whereas krill caught in nets contained nearly equal proportions. The differences in size and maturity of krill taken by penguins are discussed in terms of aggregated random sampling, prey selection by predators, and evasion by krill of predators and nets. We conclude that the differences are unlikely to be accounted for simply by sampling anomalies; the differences are more likely to relate to penguins selecting larger, nutritionally superior krill, but might also reflect differential escape responses of particular classes of krill when evading penguins or nets.
The Earth’s convecting upper mantle can be viewed as comprising three main reservoirs, beneath the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans. Because of the uneven global distribution and migration of ridges and subduction zones, the surface area of the Pacific reservoir is at present contracting at about 0.6 km2 x y(r-1), while the Atlantic and Indian reservoirs are growing at about 0.45 km2 x yr(-1) and 0.15 km2 x yr(-1), respectively. Garfunkel and others have argued that there must accordingly be net mantle flow from the Pacific to the Atlantic and Indian reservoirs (in order to maintain mass balance), and Alvarez further predicted that this flow should be restricted to the few parts of the Pacific rim (here termed ‘gateways’) where there are no continental roots or subduction zones that might act as barriers to shallow mantle flow. The main Pacific gateways are, according to Alvarez, the southeast Indian Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Drake passage. Here we report geochemical data which confirm that there has been some outflow of Pacific mantle into the Drake passage–but probably in response to regional tectonic constraints, rather than global mass-balance requirements. We also show that a mantle domain boundary, equivalent to the Australian-Antarctic discordance, must lie between the Drake passage and the east Scotia Sea.
The Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) and macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) are sympatric top predators that occur in the Southern Ocean around South Georgia where they are, respectively, the main mammal and bird consumers of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). In recent years the population of fur seals has increased, whereas that of macaroni penguins has declined. Both species feed on krill of similar size ranges, dive to similar depths and are restricted in their foraging range at least while provisioning their offspring. In this study we test the hypothesis that the increased fur seal population at South Georgia may have resulted in greater competition for the prey of macaroni penguins, leading to the decline in their population. We used: (1) satellite-tracking data to investigate the spatial separation of the Bird Island populations of these two species whilst at sea during the breeding seasons of 1999 and 2000 and (2) diet data to assess potential changes in their trophic niches between 1989 and 2000. Foraging ranges of the two species showed considerable overlap in both years, but the concentrations of foraging activity were significantly segregated spatially. The size of krill taken by both species was very similar, but over the last 12 years the prevalence of krill in their diets has diverged, with nowadays less krill in the diet of macaroni penguins than in that of Antarctic fur seals. Despite a significant degree of segregation in spatial resource use by the study populations, it is likely that the South Georgia populations of Antarctic fur seal and macaroni penguin exploit the same krill population during their breeding season. For explaining the opposing population trends of the two species, the relative contributions of independent differential response to interannual variation in krill availability and of interspecies competition cannot be resolved with available evidence. The likely competitive advantage of Antarctic fur seals will be enhanced as their population continues to increase, particularly in years of krill scarcity.
Dramatic changes (acceleration, thinning, and grounding-line retreat of major ice streams) in the Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) have been observed during the past two decades, but the millennial-scale context for these changes is not yet known. We present the first surface exposure ages recording thinning of Pine Island, Smith, and Pope Glaciers, which all drain into the Amundsen Sea. From these we infer progressive thinning of Pine Island Glacier at an average rate of 3.8 +/- 0.3 cm yr(-1) for at least the past 4.7 k.y., and of Smith and Pope Glaciers at 2.3 +/- 0.2 cm yr(-1) over the past 14.5 k.y. These rates are more than an order of magnitude lower than the similar to 1.6 m yr(-1) recorded by satellite altimetry for Pine Island Glacier in the period 1992-1996. Similarly low long-term rates (2.5-9 ern yr(-1) since 10 ka) have been reported farther west in the Ford Ranges, Marie Byrd Land, but in that area, the same rates of thinning continue to the present day. Our data provide the first evidence that puts into context recent rates of thinning of the WAIS in the Amundsen Sea Embayment and demonstrates that these are unusually rapid. The data also provide much-needed constraints for ice sheet models, which are the primary tool for predicting the future behavior of the WAIS and its likely contribution to sea-level rise.
Ice streams provide major drainage pathways for the Antarctic ice sheet. The stressdistribution and style of flow in such ice streams produce elastic and rheological anisotropy, whichinforms ice-flow modelling as to how ice masses respond to external changes such as global warming.Here we analyse elastic anisotropy in Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, using observations of shearwavesplitting from three-component icequake seismograms to characterize ice deformation via crystalpreferredorientation. Over 110 high-quality measurements are made on 41 events recorded at fivestations deployed temporarily near the ice-stream grounding line. To the best of our knowledge, this isthe first well-documented observation of shear-wave splitting from Antarctic icequakes. The magnitudeof the splitting ranges from 2 to 80ms and suggests a maximum of 6% shear-wave splitting. The fastshear-wave polarization direction is roughly perpendicular to ice-flow direction. We consider threemechanisms for ice anisotropy: a cluster model (vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) model); a girdlemodel (horizontal transversely isotropic (HTI) model); and crack-induced anisotropy (HTI model).Based on the data, we can rule out a VTI mechanism as the sole cause of anisotropy – an HTI componentis needed, which may be due to ice crystal a-axis alignment in the direction of flow or the alignment ofcracks or ice films in the plane perpendicular to the flow direction. The results suggest a combination ofmechanisms may be at play, which represent vertical variations in the symmetry of ice crystal anisotropyin an ice stream, as predicted by ice fabric models.
Scarred shells of polar pteropod Limacina helicina collected from the Greenland Sea in June 2012 reveal a history of damage, most likely failed predation, in earlier life stages. Evidence of shell fracture and subsequent re-growth is commonly observed in specimens recovered from the sub-Arctic and further afield. However, at one site within sea-ice on the Greenland shelf, shells that had been subject to mechanical damage were also found to exhibit considerable dissolution. It was evident that shell dissolution was localised to areas where the organic, periostracal sheet that covers the outer shell had been damaged at some earlier stage during the animal’s life. Where the periostracum remained intact, the shell appeared pristine with no sign of dissolution. Specimens which appeared to be pristine following collection were incubated for four days. Scarring of shells that received periostracal damage during collection only became evident in specimens that were incubated in waters undersaturated with respect to aragonite, ΩAr≤1. While the waters from which the damaged specimens were collected at the Greenland Sea sea-ice margin were not Ω Ar ≤1, the water column did exhibit the lowest ΩAr values observed in the Greenland and Barents Seas, and was likely to have approached ΩAr≤1 during the winter months. We demonstrate that L. helicina shells are only susceptible to dissolution where both the periostracum has been breached and the aragonite beneath the breach is exposed to waters of ΩAr≤1. Exposure of multiple layers of aragonite in areas of deep dissolution indicate that, as with many molluscs, L. helicina is able to patch up dissolution damage to the shell by secreting additional aragonite internally and maintain their shell. We conclude that, unless breached, the periostracum provides an effective shield for pteropod shells against dissolution in waters ΩAr≤1, and when dissolution does occur the animal has an effective means of self-repair. We suggest that future studies of pteropod shell condition are undertaken on specimens from which the periostracum has not been removed in preparation.
Scotia Sea and the Drake Passage is key towards understanding the development of modern oceanic circulation patterns and their implications for ice sheet growth and decay. The sedimentary record of the southern Scotia Sea basins documents the regional tectonic, oceanographic and climatic evolution since the Eocene. However, a lack of accurate age estimations has prevented the calibration of the reconstructed history. The upper sedimentary record of the Scotia Sea was scientifically drilled for the first time in 2019 during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 382, recovering sediments down to ∼643 and 676 m below sea floor in the Dove and Pirie basins respectively. Here, we report newly acquired high resolution physical properties data and the first accurate age constraints for the seismic sequences of the upper sedimentary record of the Scotia Sea to the late Miocene. The drilled record contains four basin-wide reflectors – Reflector-c, -b, -a and -a’ previously estimated to be ∼12.6 Ma, ∼6.4 Ma, ∼3.8 Ma and ∼2.6 Ma, respectively. By extrapolating our new Scotia Sea age model to previous morpho-structural and seismic-stratigraphic analyses of the wider region we found, however, that the four discontinuities drilled are much younger than previously thought. Reflector-c actually formed before 8.4 Ma, Reflector-b at ∼4.5/3.7 Ma, Reflector-a at ∼1.7 Ma, and Reflector-a’ at ∼0.4 Ma. Our updated age model of these discontinuities has major implications for their correlation with regional tectonic, oceanographic and cryospheric events. According to our results, the outflow of Antarctic Bottom Water to northern latitudes controlled the Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow from late Miocene. Subsequent variability of the Antarctic ice sheets has influenced the oceanic circulation pattern linked to major global climatic changes during early Pliocene, Mid-Pleistocene and the Marine Isotope Stage 11.